"The Comparative Survey of Freedom 1989-1999
A Good Year for Freedom Ethnicity and Nationalism
The Freedom House data also suggest that countries without a predominant ethnic majority are less successful in establishing open and democratic societies than ethnically homogeneous countries. For the purposes of making this comparison, we define countries in which over two-thirds of the population belong to a single ethnic group as mono-ethnic, and those without such a two-thirds majority as multiethnic.
According to this definition, 66 of the 88 Free countries (75 percent) are mono-ethnic, while 22 (25 percent) are multiethnic. Of the 114 countries in the world that possess a dominant ethnic group, 66 (58 percent) are Free, 22 (19 percent) are Partly Free, and 26 (23 percent) are Not Free. By contrast, among multiethnic countries only 22 of 77 (29 percent) are Free, 31 (40 percent) are Partly Free, and 24 (31 percent) are Not Free. A mono-ethnic country, therefore, is twice as likely to be Free as a multiethnic one.
FREEDOM AND ETHNICITY
Just as there are important regional variations in basic freedoms and political systems, there are also noteworthy distinctions between monoethnic and multiethnic countries with regard to freedom and democracy. Indeed, democracy is as a rule significantly more successful in mono-ethnic societies (i.e., societies in which there is a single dominant majority ethnic group representing over two-thirds the population) than in ethnically divided and multiethnic societies.
When this year’s Survey data are examined through the prism of ethnic composition, they offer some revealing findings. For example, 64 (74 percent) of Free countries have a dominant ethnic majority representing more than two-thirds of the population, while 22 (26 percent) do not. Among Partly Free countries, 25 (42 percent) are monoethnic, while 34 (58 percent) are multi-ethnic or ethnically divided. And among the Not Free states, there are 25 (53 percent) that are monoethnic, while 22 (47 percent) are not. In short, a state with a dominant ethnic group is well over three times more likely to be free than a multiethnic state.
©2000Freedom House, Inc.
Last Update: December 19, 2000"
Итак, американские поборники свободы пришли к выводу: моноэтнические государства свободнее полиэтнических. Значит ли это, что для достижения свободы необходима этническая чистка, столь рьяно осуждаемая теми же поборниками свободы? Или, может быть, их понимание свободы расходится с тем, что лично мне представляется здравым смыслом?